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Changing Mars

Exploring Mars by spacecraft destroyed an entire world that existed only in humankind's imagination — and it gave us a real world loaded with complexities.
Robert BurnhamThe exploration of Mars began earlier than many people think. Just three years after the launch of Sputnik in October 1957, the beginning of the space age, the first Mars probe was launched (by the Soviet Union, now Russia). It failed on launch, however — as did a second Soviet Mars launch attempt a few days later. Over succeeding years, the Soviets tried three more times, each flight failing one way or another. Meanwhile, the United States looked on, while making plans. Firs...

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