NASA’s airborne infrared observatory sees “first light”

SOFIA begins a 20-year journey that will enable a wide variety of astronomical science observations.Provided by NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
By | Published: June 1, 2010 | Last updated on May 18, 2023
Jupiter as seen by SOFIA
Infrared image of Jupiter from SOFIA’s first-light flight composed of individual images at wavelengths of 5.4 (blue), 24 (green) and 37 (red) microns made by Cornell University’s FORCAST camera. A recent visual-wavelength picture of approximately the same side of Jupiter is shown for comparison. The white stripe in the infrared image is a region of relatively transparent clouds through which the warm interior of Jupiter can be seen.
Visual: A. Wesley; Infrared: NASA/USRA/L-3 Communications Integrated Systems
June 1, 2010
The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a joint program by NASA and the German Aerospace Center, achieved a major milestone May 26 with its first in-flight night observations.

“With this flight, SOFIA begins a 20-year journey that will enable a wide variety of astronomical science observations not possible from other Earth and space-borne observatories,” said Jon Morse, Astrophysics Division director in the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C. “It clearly sets expectations that SOFIA will provide us with ‘great observatory’ class astronomical science.”

The highly modified SOFIA Boeing 747SP jetliner fitted with a 100-inch-diameter (254 centimeters) reflecting telescope took off from its home base at the Aircraft Operations Facility in Palmdale, California, of NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center. The in-flight personnel consisted of an international crew from NASA, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) in Columbia, Maryland, Cornell University in New York City, and the German SOFIA Institute) in Stuttgart. During the 6-hour flight, at altitudes up to 35,000 feet (10,700 meters), the crew of 10 scientists, astronomers, engineers, and technicians gathered telescope performance data at consoles in the aircraft’s main cabin.

“Wind tunnel tests and supercomputer calculations made at the start of the SOFIA program predicted we would have sharp enough images for front-line astronomical research,” said SOFIA project scientist Pam Marcum of NASA’s Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California. “A preliminary look at the first light data indicates we indeed accomplished that.”

The stability and precise pointing of the German-built telescope met or exceeded the expectations of the engineers and astronomers who put it through its paces during the flight.

“The crowning accomplishment of the night came when scientists on board SOFIA recorded images of Jupiter,” said USRA SOFIA senior science advisor Eric Becklin. “The composite image from SOFIA shows heat, trapped since the formation of the planet, pouring out of Jupiter’s interior through holes in its clouds.”

Its builders, a team led by Cornell’s Terry Herter, operated the highly sensitive Faint Object infraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) used for these initial observations in flight. FORCAST captures in minutes images that would require many hour-long exposures by ground-based observatories blocked from a clear infrared view by water vapor in the Earth’s atmosphere. SOFIA’s operational altitude, which is above more than 99 percent of that water vapor, allows it to receive 80 percent or more of the infrared light accessible to space observatories.