Athena to study the hot and energetic universe

The observatory will take the “L2” slot in the European Space Agency’s Cosmic Vision 2015–25 plan with a launch foreseen in 2028.
By | Published: June 27, 2014 | Last updated on May 18, 2023
Artist's impression of an active galaxy
Artist’s impression of an active galaxy
The European Space Agency (ESA) has selected the Athena advanced telescope for high-energy astrophysics as its second “large-class” science mission.

The observatory will study the hot and energetic universe and take the “L2” slot in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015–25 plan with a launch foreseen in 2028.

By combining a large X-ray telescope with state-of-the-art scientific instruments, Athena will address key questions in astrophysics, including how and why ordinary matter assembles into the galaxies and galactic clusters that we see today as well as how black holes grow and influence their surroundings.

Scientists believe that black holes lurk at the center of almost all galaxies and that they play a fundamental role in their formation and evolution.

To investigate this connection, Athena will observe X-ray emission from very hot material just before it is swallowed by a black hole, measuring distortions due to gravitational light-bending and time-delay effects in this extreme environment. Athena also will be able to determine the spin of the black hole itself.

Athena’s powerful instruments also will allow unprecedented studies of a wide range of astronomical phenomena. These include distant gamma-ray bursts, the hot gas found in the space around clusters of galaxies, the magnetic interplay between exoplanets and their parent stars, Jupiter’s aurorae, and comets in our solar system.

“Athena will be a state-of-the-art observatory that will provide a significant leap forward in scientific capabilities compared with previous X-ray missions and will address fundamental open questions in astrophysics,” said Alvaro Giménez from ESA. “Its selection ensures that Europe’s success in the field of X-ray astronomy is maintained far beyond the lifetime of our flagship observatory, XMM-Newton.”

The selection process for L2 began in March 2013 when ESA issued a call to the European science community to suggest the scientific themes to be pursued by the Cosmic Vision program’s second and third Large missions.

In November 2013, the theme of “the hot and energetic universe” was selected for L2 for a launch in 2028, with “the gravitational universe” selected for L3 and a planned launch in 2034.

Now officially selected for L2, Athena moves into a study phase. Once the mission design and costing have been completed, it will eventually be proposed for “adoption” in around 2019 before the start of construction.

After launch, Athena will travel to its operational orbit around the gravitationally semistable location in space some 1 million miles (1.5 million kilometers) beyond Earth as seen from the Sun — a position coincidentally known as L2. ESA’s Herschel, Planck, and Gaia missions also have used L2 orbits.