NASA’s Kepler spacecraft is proving itself to be a prolific planet hunter. Within just the first 4 months of data, astronomers have found evidence for more than 1,200 planetary candidates. Of those, 408 reside in systems containing two or more planets, and most of those look very different than our solar system.
In particular, the Kepler systems with multiple planets are much flatter than our solar system. They have to be for Kepler to spot them. Kepler watches for a planet to cross in front of its star, blocking a tiny fraction of the star’s light. By measuring how much the star dims during such a transit, astronomers can calculate the planet’s size, and by observing the time between successive events, they can derive the orbital period — how long it takes the planet to revolve around its star.
To see a transit, the planet’s orbit must be edge-on to our line of sight. To see multiple transiting planets, they all must be edge-on (or nearly so).
“We didn’t anticipate that we would find so many multiple-transit systems. We thought we might see two or three. Instead, we found more than 100,” said astronomer David Latham of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.
In our solar system, some planet orbits are tilted by up to 7°, meaning that an alien astronomer looking for transits wouldn’t be able to detect all eight planets. (In particular, they would miss Mercury and Venus.) The systems spotted by Kepler are much flatter, with orbits tilted less than 1°.
Why are they so flat? One clue comes from the planets themselves. The multi-planet systems found by Kepler are dominated by planets smaller than Neptune. They lack Jupiter-sized gas giants. Scientists believe that a gas giant’s powerful gravity tends to disrupt planetary systems, tilting the orbits of neighboring worlds.